The Sicily had not moved, in 1860. Or, if movements, where movements, were not sure in the intentional unitary sense from the piemontesi. It was for proclamare an independent, republican Sicily, in which poor people could living in peace without being taken advantage of from nobody. But these movements could not appeal to. And therefore, before that 1860 finished, Bixio, still sent from Garibaldi, had to run to Bronte and in many other countries, with troops not sicialian, in order to tame the true, authentic sicialian revolution that began. To Bronte it made to shoot five persons. Elsewhere, more. It imposed ransoms and fines to the population, that it tried to terrify in any case. "cursed Mission (confessed more late the same Bixio) to which a man of my nature would not have never to be sent!". Then the Italians came down in Sicily. Civil Luogotenenti, Commissioners, states of I besiege and other exceptional measures imperversarono in Sicily to leave from the unification. The first state of I besiege was proclamato in Sicily in 1862; and it, as Crispi said, left terrible traces.

In the following year, the second was had of fact be of besieges with the mission of general Govone which openly violò the laws of the State. Under general Govone, in order to fight the renitenti to the lever, Common the sicialian cords military or taken quite of onslaught came town-walls; without arrest warrant they came arrests to you to mayors and communal councilmen; they came taken to hostages, comprised the pregnant women, di.le which (Blessed Rini, of Alcamo), nearly to the term of the pregnancy, died in jail after four days of convulsions. Even the pain of the water was applied! And how many innocents were martoriati! An unfortunate laborer, Antonio Hat, deaf-mute gives it birth, came subordinate alla torture nell' Military hospital of Palermo, like if he pretended it are dumb and sordo for sottrarsi al military service: on its corpse 154 burns made with the rovente iron could be counted!

All these are made. Facts document to you. Enough to leaf through the book of Zingali: "Liberalismo and fascismo in Southern Italy d' Italy", first volume, from page 232 in then: you will find this and other to us! And it is not a separatista that writes, attended, but a Fascist which he has been even federal secretary! In the 1866 patience it ended. The people of Palermo rebelled themselves like a single man. "a masnada of robbers ours has governed for six most painful years the native land. A masnada of feracious men it has insanguinata it ": therefore the proclama began revolutionary of 1866. In the city and the province of Palermo, the revolution assumed, from the 16 to the 22 such september, proportions, to force the government to send to you promptly, with the quality of Regal Commissioner, general Raffaele Cadorna, to the head of two divisions of infantry, a regiment of cavalry and one artillery brigade.

And they, ladri and the murders of the people won. They shot without process migliaia of citizens. While instead the rebelled ones sicialian, that they had taken two thousand soldiers captive, they did not have to they touched a hat. "Repressed the revolt and red-establish the order, the things continued like before. A law was not voted, a provision was not taken in order to carry some remedy to the existing evils, that they went continuously aggravating itself ". Sapete who writes these words? Not a separatista; but of the good Fascists, unitarians, Libertini and Paladino, to page 752 of their "History of Sicily" published hardly ten years ago. In the 1875 things they continued to get worse. The Italian government proposed exceptional measures of police against the Sicily. The deputies sicialian rebelled. Listened to those that said Paul the Lord's prayer: "You speak about the exceptional conditions in which the Sicily is found, of the dissatisfaction that reigns to you. But, ask I, you that what you have made for the Sicily? What has made the government? Null. Or all the contrary of that it had.

If you give a glance to all the services of the Sicily, to all the administrations, you you will find that everywhere, and always, the government has been lead badly. I will choose some example. Sapete you as it has been dealt the magistracy in Sicily? When they have been the preTauruses that they do not have intentional to support the orders of the political authority, they have been threatens to you, sometimes trasloca you. And of ours it employs (other example to you) that what you have made some? Ve I will say it in two words. When you send in Sicily someone, you fairies to suppose that the sent ones for punishment, like if the sent ones in exile, and you say to it: - Gone laggiù, gone in Sicily; then, if you will behave yourselves well, if you are zealous, then provvederemo. These getlteman go laggiù coll' idea to find themselves in means to people that are not worth the pain of having to respect like all the rest of Italy; and they make of the excessive zeal; and they often become provocative agents; and they increase the dissatisfaction. And of ours he employs you of laggiù, of employs to you sicialian, than what you have made some? of the small he employs to you, above all?

Because to yours prefetto he is jumped in head to more make a relationship or little offensive insolent person and for the Sicily, you believe seriously that many disorders must to therefore said the Mafia, that it would have infiltrated itself between employs to it to you, and... botte from orbo, traslocazioni, bouncing people with one wage of hunger in far countries, without neanche travel ndemnity, moving and ruining all their interests. That you have made some of our railroads? And of our obligatory roads? And of the assets of the Jesuits and the Liguorini, that they were assigns you public education? In our administrations not there is that the disorder, the chaos. And the populations are become accustomed to think and to say: - But this is not a government; the taxes if they make them to pay; the fiscalismo pursued us under all the shapes, besieges us and us torture; but when draft to manage itself, administration ce n' is not. Which thing is made? It is rerun to exceptional means of police, is rerun to the military government, instead improving the country economically!". Here those that I scream in Parliament the sicialian deputy Paul the Lord's prayer. Its words seem written today. And all we sicialian, today, could scream them to the fascist government. But about the fascist government we will speak soon.

After the Lord's prayer it spoke, in the same sense, Column of Cesarò. Then Diego Tajani. This man, patriot, esule and volunteer of the independence wars, had been after the 1860 Attorney general to the Appeals Court of Palermo. And since he was an honest man and without fear, he had felt the duty to enunciate arrest warrant against the quaestor of Palermo, and to put under process the prefetto of Palermo, guilty both of abominable abuses. The government, naturally, had been put against of he. It had given endured the dimissioni closing itself in one sdegnoso Hush. Elect deputy, was later for two times Minister di Grazia and Giustizia. Orbene, when it saw that the Sicily came newly provoked and slandered, Diego Tajani did not know more tacere. For two days, innanzi to the esterrefatto Parliament, he exposed one after the other all the ingiustizie, the canagliate ones, the infamies of which the Italian government it was itself spotted: wonderful requisitoria that all the sicialian would have to learn to memory! Concluded with this solemn warning: You remember yourselves that the Sicily is a island, and the islands are considered like something of distaccato, of independent! Wasted words! The law against the Sicily was approved of. And new violences were pulled down on our unfortunate native land.

The Sicily has been always considered like enemy earth, conquered earth, to conserve with the force. For this reason, in 1875, battalions of infantry and bersaglieres kept themselves in Sicily ventitré; two squadrons of cavalry; four platoons of bersaglieres mount to you; 3,130 numerous police officers and other subsidiary forces, between which mainly guards of public safety and guards to horse! He reached himself therefore Makes us sicialian of the workers, I found to you and directed from Giuseppe Happy De. Which thing wanted the Sicily in 1893 - 94? Those that it has always intentional: Justice and Liberty. The government presided from Giolitti, riversò in the island a multitude of soldiers, which did not make that to increase the malumore in the people. The inevitable happened: on the principle of 1893, a crash had place to Caltavuturo between the crowd and the troop. The troop dared to talk nonsense on the pacific of the same country, a great number of which remained killed. It promised Giolitti to make to open an inquiry against the soldiers who had made fire; but it did not maintain. To the contrary, during the entire year, it left that the police and the army abandoned to all the excesses: in the days of December, that particularly they were upset, more than 200 sicialian came victims of a murder, while the public force had single a dead man.

Looking at itself assassinated, the sicialian rebelled everywhere. They broke off telegraphic threads; they set afire town halls, preture, esattorie, offices of the registry and of the cadastre, agencies of the taxes, arch to you notarial, casotti customs; they freed imprisons to you; they tried to disarm police officers and soldiers. To this point, the King conceived the monstrous idea to entrust to a sicialian the repression of the sicialian movement. Crispi accepted the part of Caino. Proclamò the state of I besiege; and general Morra Di Lavriano name extraordinary commissioner with full powers, than little days before he had sent to Palermo like prefetto. He came recalled to the crews the class of 1869; and more than 40.000 men they came disembarks to you in Sicily. The heads of the movement were throw to you in jail: and first of all Happy De that, being deputy, could not not be arrested without the authorization of the Room. It makes us sicialian of the workers (that they were by now 166 with 300.000 associates to you) were melted and their occupied militarily centers. Forbidden to the crowds and the reunions. Instituted the censorship.

In order more than seven months the Sicily was subordinate to the martial law. The arrests were made without need of tests. And the sentences came appioppate, most times, without that the accused could not defend themselves. The accusations, of all the imaginary ones. "to have cooperated to the material and moral emancipation of the workers" it was a crime strictly repressed! In june 1894, more than 1800 sicialian they had been already condemned to the coatto address. Many, to more serious pains. Happy De to 18 years of jail, Forest, Bearded and Boar to 12 years. To the Chamber of deputies, Happy Clevises declared that the government violato the laws and the same Charter. Then taken the word Matteo Renato Imbriani: "You (it said turned to Crispi) you have stracciato to one to one all the pages of the Charter. You have made scempio of all our freedoms... There are many that say: - the Borboni bombed. - But they bombed when a city was in open rebellion. But the Borboni has not never made to pull over unarmed and hungry crowds... ". The Sicily elesse Happy De deputies, Forest and Bearded, than languivano in jail. The election, is understood, came cancelled.

Therefore the things continued, evil always, until the war. From 1915 to 1918 also and above all in Sicily the peasants and the craftsmen, the professionals and the students came tear you from their houses and send you to the slaughter house. But when the war ended, we asked the yield for the accounts. And we would have obtained it, for God! if this wretch fascist government had not renewed a system of police tyranny sopprimendo the last freedoms and doubling our chains. ANTONIO CANEPA (MARIO TURRI)